Research
I have rooted my research in multiple areas. Musical scores, recipes and everday gestures.



Cooking
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Cooking as Interpretation by Robert T. Valgenti
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“Cooking is never just about the preparation of food, but in its purpose and expression reveals relations of power, geography, time, and so on.” Robert T. Valgenti


“To cook is not only a transformation of the ingredients into a particular dish, but the transformation of that dish’s very meaning within the ever-changing contexts of its preparation.” Robert T. Valgenti


“Similar to the manner in which a great actor interprets the lines given to a character in a play into a living performance, or a musician interprets the notes written in the score into the sounds of an instrument, or a dancer interprets the rhythms of a musical performance into bodily motion, or a poet interprets the meanings of lived experience into language, a chef interprets the qualities of edible materials into gustatory experiences and sensory events.” Robert T. Valgenti



Probabilistic Metaphysics by Patrick Suppes

“In the case of geometry, each step is justified in a way that makes no further discussion or analysis of any kind appropriate, at least not within the confines of the subject matter as laid down by the axioms and postulates. In the case of cooking, on the other hand, the whole matter is very much more open-ended. There is not an intellectual regimentation of the subject. We do not have clearcut reasons to justify each step, and there would be a large amount of variation as well as debate about the proper formulation of each procedure. The variation here is not the kind to be found in Euclid. There are different ways of making the same construction, but here there are actually procedures that produce different results to obtain the same goal and there can be argument about the virtues of one procedure over another in terms of the outcome, quite apart from the question of which is more elegant or more efficient, an aspect of the geometrical constructions that could also be considered.” Patrick Suppes


Anthropology and/as Education by Tim Ingold

“Only when placed in the context of skills gained through prior experience does information specify a route that is comprehensible and that can practicably be followed, and only a route so specified can lead to knowledge. It is in this sense that all knowledge is founded in skill.” Tim Ingold



Foodmaking as a Thoughtful Practice by Lisa Heldke

“The knowing involved in making a cake is ‘contained’ not simply ‘in my head’ but in my hands, my wrists, my eyes and nose as well. The phrase ‘bodily knowledge’ is not a metaphor. It is an acknowledgement of the fact that I know things literally with my body, that I, ‘as’ my hands, know when the bread dough is sufficiently kneaded, and I ‘as’ my nose know when the pie is done.” Lisa Heldke



On Joseph Beuys

“As Beuys notes: ‘The chef in the term Küchenchef signifies the human head. The word chef derives from the head. Everyone has such a head. Everyone has his chef. Everyone has the possibility to determine what is going on. Therefore, the word Küchenchef implies the component of self-determination. This is the meaning of Chef.’” quoted by Harald Lemke



“If creativity is not to be subjected to unnecessary rules and prescriptions, the principle intuition . . . instead of cookbook (as Beuys calls one of his works) can be applied to the culinary art of living to set cooking practice free from the unimaginative and uncreative applications of recipes.” Harald Lemke







Recipes
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“Try telling an Italian that their recipes are fluid and adaptable, you might think, but the fact of the matter is that writing a recipe is a form of translation, from a physical act to a verbal record. Something might always be lost in that process, but just the fact of acknowledging that loss – the imprecision of our technical language, the allowance for differences in ingredient and utensil – can let us find it again, or something new.” Thom Eagle



The Anatomy of a Recipe by M.F.K. Fisher
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“The reasons for the gradual changes in a basic recipe such as one for wheat bread, for instance, are inextricably tangled with man’s history and assumed progress.” M.F.K. Fisher


“It is only the way of writing the recipe itself that has evolved, to be trimmed to our changing tempo of reading, preparing, producing.” M.F.K. Fisher


“There are some things I demand to be told, in a recipe. Basically they are two: the ingredients and the method.” M.F.K. Fisher


“A recipe is supposed to be a formula, a means prescribed for producing a desired result, whether that be an atomic weapon, a well-trained Pekingese, or an omelet. There can be no frills about it, no ambiguities… and above all no ‘little secrets’.” M.F.K. Fisher



Recipes for Reading: Summer Pasta, Lobster à la Riseholme, and Key Lime Pie by Susan J. Leonardi
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“Such a list alone is, in fact, surprisingly useless.” Susan J. Leonardi


“Even the root of recipe—the Latin recipere—implies an exchange, a giver and receiver. Like a story, a recipe needs a recommendation, a context, a point, a reason to be. A recipe is, then, an embedded discourse.” Susan J. Leonardi


“Like a narrative, a recipe is reproducible, and, further, its hearers-readers-receivers are encouraged to reproduce it and, in reproducing it, to revise it and make it their own. Folktales, ghost stories, jokes and recipes willingly undergo such repetition and revision. Unlike the repetition of a narrative, however, a recipe’s reproducibility can have a literal result, the dish itself. This kinship to the litreality of human reproducibility.” Susan J. Leonardi


“The recipe’s social context gives it far more significance than that of a mere rule for cooking.” Susan J. Leonardi


“Significantly, ‘rule’ has long been a synonym for recipe…” Susan J. Leonardi



The Literature of Food by Nicola Humble
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“A distinction should be made between the digressive potential of the recipe and the text in which it is embedded. Food, and therefore food writing, as this book has aimed to demonstrate, exerts a centripetal force capable of dragging all sorts of apparently diverse areas into its field: power, politics, sex, violence, national identity, body image, familial relations, the means of production, gender, history, the avant-garde — all these and more have, throughout its history, been considered a reasonable part of the discourse of the cookbook. For the most part, however, the more wildly digressive elements have not formed part of the recipe proper, and have instead been part of introductory material at the start of books or chapters or sections.” Nicola Humble


“The recipe… is insertable into a variety of contexts, appearing in instructional manuals, newspaper columns, magazine pages and food blogs, but also in less immediately obvious forms such as memoirs, novels and essays.” Nicola Humble


“In the act of instructing, they speak to us, and in speaking, they gain a particular voice and convey a sense of a personality operating behind that voice.” Nicola Humble


“When people remark (and many do) that they read cookbooks like novels, it is this process to which they are referring: the construction of a narrative personality through the reading between the lines and gaps of discontinuous text.” Nicola Humble


“Ingredients have to be grown, harvested and prepared by hand: quails and turkeys killed, eggs slowly gathered as the hens lay and then preserved over months; nuts one by one roasted, shelled and the bitter inner skin removed. Food in this culture and time can fill - and use up - a whole life, and part of the point of the recipes is to speak to the gap between our worlds and theirs. The recipes themselves are magic realist devices - making strange the ordinary and making the magical real by giving us a set of rules which will apparently reproduce it.” Nicola Humble


“What all these recipes and reminiscent say to the reader cuts to the paradox at the heart of the cookbook. They say: you can’t have this. You can’t have this because I already had it. This food is unrepeatable. The cauliflower cheese made in California cannot be the same as that in Dijon. Food is a one-off, a fugitive moment, best appreciated as memory. We cannot catch it and keep it; and at their heart, all cookbooks know this, even as they try to freeze the dish in photographic form, to arrest the process of its destruction in consumption. Food is always in process: growing, being prepared, being chewed, digest and defecated. The only place it is ever fixed whole in time is in memory. In reality, its flavors and substance dissolve in our mouths and are gone.” Nicola Humble


“For many novels and memoirs the power of the recipe lies in its promise to bring the fleeting, ephemeral sensations of the past into the present; in its establishment of identity, of intimacy between speaking subject and reader - yet an awareness of the problematics of those promises lurk close to the surface. In its very form, the recipe dramatizes the tensions between food as text and food as bodily experience, between the food we read and the food we eat.” Nicola Humble



Anthropology and/as Education by Tim Ingold
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“The verbal instructions of the recipe, in other words, draw their meanings neither from their attachment to mental representations inside my head, nor from their attachment to those inside yours, but from their positioning within the familiar environment of the home.” Tim Ingold


“Neither verbal sounds nor the graphic marks of writing, he insisted, come with their meanings already attached; rather they gather their meanings, in the same way that things do, from their enrolment in the shared experience of joint activity. Agreement on the meaning of words is an achievement of commoning: we have continually to work at it, and for that reason it is always provisional, never final.” Tim Ingold


“In itself, then, the recipe is not knowledge. Rather, it opens up a path to knowledge, thanks to its location within a taskscape that is already partially familiar by virtue of previous experience.” Tim Ingold



Cooking Skill, the Senses, and Memory: The Fate of Practical Knowledge by David Sutton
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“The verbal instructions of the recipe, in other words, draw their meanings neither from their attachment to mental representations inside my head, nor from their attachment to those inside yours, but from their positioning within the familiar environment of the home.” David Sutton



Foodmaking as a Thoughtful Practice by Lisa Heldke
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“If you don’t know how you like it, what good is it for me to tell you how much rice to put in? And if you don’t already know how to cook it, how is my writing it in a book going to help you learn? You need a teacher—a hands-on teacher—for that. Bodily knowledge is acquired through embodied experience.” Lisa Heldke


“Words can’t explain what you must learn using your hands and nose and mouth.” Lisa Heldke



Eating Culture: An Anthropological Guide to Food by Gillian Crowther
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“Cooking is about much more than just making food; it is about these aesthetics, combinations of ingredients, skill, and the interplay of the senses, together with an image—either imagined or illustrated—of what the food should look like when it is finished.” Gillian Crowther



“A dish acts as a form of visual communication, relying upon aesthetics and symbols to condense many cultural ideas and messages into one format.” Gillian Crowther



“The more territorially located recipes are orally based, passed on through experience and conversation from one generation to another; the textually based ones, written up in cookbooks are less located, more mobile, and will be passed on to anyone who can read.” Gillian Crowther



“...recipes can be regarded as living in the senses, existing as people’s intellectual but practical knowledge, and as part of their lived experience of culture, recorded in memory though successive performances, but able to be creatively adapted to changing circumstances.” Gillian Crowther



“The male cooks took what were oral traditions and made them textual, and they took the knowledge away from the daily, domestic lives of women who cooked for their family, transforming it into the specialized knowledge of men who would cook for wealthy employers as a job. These two sites of cooking—at home and in public, for free or for wages, by women and by men—came to be identified as the location of lower cooking versus higher cooking, or low and high cuisine.” Gillian Crowther




Food Mentioned Through Musical Notation
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“The composer is not concerned with fixing specifically the combination of pitches and timbres that may be heard at any one moment. Calling this ‘chance composition’ would be like saying that the flavor of bouillabaisse has been left to chance because its chef forgot to fix the order in which its ingredients are eaten.” David Behrman



“[Notations are] capsules of information both technical and expressive which require ‘reading’ (that is, decoding and digesting).” Stuart Paul Duncan



Cookbooks?
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Cookbooks can be understood as...

“...a new means of transmitting culinary knoweldge, moving away from purely experiential, informal leanrign to becoem formalized, specialist, commercial training.” Gillian Crowther


“Cookbooks are like few other books that can be found in a household; they are sensory, memory-provoking, consulted, and have agency in shaping social and cultural life.” Gillian Crowther




Scores
Musical notation is a system that is used to visually represent aurally perceived music by the use of visual symbols. A graphic score is a drawing that represents a musical composition through the use of visual symbols outside the realm of traditional music notation.

The score took on new meanings and went from being a mere support of sound to being an extension of the work, or even another work altogether.

These scores feel like ways to teach someone, yet to simultaneously trust their own knowledge. It gives you confidence in the individual experience.

To play an instrument is to produce an immediate result on the spot. To cook a meal is not as immediate. The performance produces a delayed product that then requires more participation from the viewer.


“Graphic notation is a perfectly justifiable expansion of normal notation in cases where the composer has an imprecise conception . . . his conception maybe quite precise as to its overall characteristics but imprecise as to the minutiae. For example, if a composer wants a string orchestra to sound like a shower of sparks, he can interrupt his five-line staves and scatter a host of dots in the relevant spaces, give a rough estimate of the proportion of plucked notes to harmonics, and let the players get on with it.” Cornelius Cardew



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“Score-writing is a powerful form of visual communication that reaches across the barriers of language, space and time.” John L. Walters



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“They function as scores that could be performed or as aesthetic objects. There are no instructions as to how they could be performed, but certain graphic elements contained within the scores could be of service to an interpreter. There are many possibilities.” Anton Lukoszevieze



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“The idea of the piece and its basic performing instructions are this: the notations on the score are not so much playing instructions as such as reference points, that is, you play around it, at varying distances from the state of being intricate, and you can, but only once in a performance, imply play “intricate”. The general notion I had was of the score’s something like a photographic negative the developed picture of which would be realized by the player; or, to use another analogy, the playing would be like movement, dancing say, in a space containing a number of variously shaped but transparent and invisible objects which the dancing generally avoids, but which as the dancing kept on would become evident, visible so to speak, because they are always being danced around.” Christian Wollf



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“Notation’s ambiguities are its saving grace. Fundamentally, notation is a serviceable device for coping with imponderables. Precision is never of the essence in creative work.” Roberto Gerhard



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“Unless you’re Brian Ferneyhough (and you think you can notate everything), notation is to do with hints rather than absolute instruction. You are trying to convey the big image.” John Woolrich


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“A score has a life of its own: its look has a lot to do with the power of the piece. When I look at a Classical score (Mozart, Beethoven and so on) you can’t actually see at a glance why it works.” Howard Skempton



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“Many people believe that improvisation doesn’t have the methodological possibility of being represented in any kind of form. That’s just not true.” Wadada Leo Smith


“Scores have a precision to them in terms of how they should be approached, but this precision is different from playing the right note. It’s more about attitude and a specific trajectory.” Wadada Leo Smith


“Art was put into society for a reason. Deeply connected with our development as a species. It makes our journey on this planet magnificent and unforgettable. A performance is a small miniature moment of that journey that can be inculcated in our heart for when we have low moments. Performance is crucial to our life journey.” Wadada Leo Smith



On What Indeterminate Notation Determines
by David Behrman
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“The traditional role of notation was to fix certain elements of performance while leaving others to the ‘musicianship’ passed on to a player by his teachers and absorbed from his environment. Many of the things done by the musician, and absolutely essential to good performance, were not to be found in the score.” David Behrman


“It became apparent that the range of sound which a player is capable of covering is so extensive and so susceptible to nuance that no notation can hope to control the whole of it.” David Behrman


“Both score and script are at the mercy of the interpreter.” David Behrman


“[Notation] should be directed to a large extent towards the people who read it, rather than towards the sound they will make.” David Behrman


“Constraining the player with too many or overly binding rules might change his mood, the spirit in which he makes his sounds, and the sounds themselves.” David Behrman


“The composer is directing a psychological measure at him in hopes of making him think twice about what he is doing.” David Behrman


“The details of how and when these things take place are determined only at the moment of their occurrence.” David Behrman



On December 1952
by Earle Brown
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“The eye can move from any point to any other point on the page so the piece could be realized for any amount of time.” Earle Brown


“A piece that was not going to be performed from left to right did not need to be composed from left to right.” Earle Brown


“[Improvisations] eliminate the possibility of cliches.” Earle Brown



On Treatise
by Cornelius Cardew
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“A composer who hears sounds will try to find a notation for sounds. One who has ideas will find one that expresses his ideas, leaving their interpretation free, in confidence that his ideas have been accurately and concisely notated.” Cornelius Cardew


“Remember that space does not correspond literally to time.” Cornelius Cardew


“The score must govern the music. It must have authority, and not merely be an arbitrary jumping-off point for improvisation, with no internal consistency.” Cornelius Cardew


“The score itself is the empty stave on which the experienced performer should write.” Cornelius Cardew


“Treatise is almost like… a travelogue of the land of composition… Treatise tells what it is like to manipulate sounds in composition. Sounds—ideas; reading Treatise is a twilight experience where the two cannot be clearly distinguished.” Cornelius Cardew


“There is a great difference between: a) doing anything you like and at the same time reading the notations, and b) reading the notations and trying to translate them into action.” Cornelius Cardew


“What all those squiggles in Treatise mean, I might reasonably answer: a) that it is very complicated to explain, and explanations are of dubious value, and b) that in any case it is secret.” Cornelius Cardew


“Where no sound is specified, any sound may occur.” Cornelius Cardew


“I, as the composer, have no idea how the piece will sound in performance. And why should I?” Cornelius Cardew


“Graphic music—which I can only define as a graphic score that produces in the reader, without any sound, something analogous to the experience of music.” Cornelius Cardew


“Each musician plays from the score, reading it in terms of his individual instrument and inclination… an improvisatory character is essential to the piece.” Cornelius Cardew


“In the notation of music today, two tendencies are apparent: 1) to so reduce the flexibility of the conventions that they become virtually inflexible… and 2) to so increase the flexibility of the conventions that they in fact become non-conventional.” Cornelius Cardew


“Notes represent a sort of base camp, the instructions pointing out one route to the summit which is a performance. The instructions are the imposition of a system on a mass of raw material, and no system, however closed, perfect and complete, can lay claim to being the only one, since what a system really represents is a human interpretation and ordering of given facts or material.” Cornelius Cardew


“Variability is from performance to performance, not within a single performance.” Cornelius Cardew


“Very often a performer’s intuitive response to the notation influences to a large extent his interpretation of the instructions.” Cornelius Cardew


“The would-be performer, bringing with him all his prejudices and virtues, intervenes in the composition of the piece, influences its identity in fact, at the moment when he first glances at the notation and jumps to a conclusion about what the piece is, what is its nature.” Cornelius Cardew


“Notations themselves are the determining factor in the method of composition of a piece, and hence in the piece’s identity and structure. The composer often provides his instructions as an interpretation of the piece. Often, then, these instructions are limiting (at best) and misleading (at worst).” Cornelius Cardew


“The most useful instructions are those which make it plain under what conditions the notation itself is not binding (ie when notes may be omitted, etc.)” Cornelius Cardew


“What a recording produces is a separate phenomenon.” Cornelius Cardew


“In music, we try to eliminate time psychologically.” Cornelius Cardew


“One can understand a notation without understanding everything that the notation is able to notate. To abandon notation is therefore a sacrifice; it deprives one of any system of formal guidelines leading you on into uncharted regions. On the other hand, the disadvantage of a traditional notation lies in its formality.” Cornelius Cardew



New Focus
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“It is true that the world is complex, as are also our perceptive mechanisms through which we are receiving the fragments of the reality around us. Should our music reflect the endless information surrounding us, or should it reflect our personal way of filtering the world? The latter seems to me more interesting.” Kaija Saariaho



On Re-Complexifying the Function(s) of Notation in the Music of Brian Ferneyhough and the “New Complexity”
by Stuart Paul Duncan
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“The performer’s role as an interpreter.” Stuart Paul Duncan


“The performer must make decisions regarding the realization of the piece… the performer assumes the role of the relativizing filter, parsing Ferneyhough’s encapsulation of the ‘endless information surrounding us.’” Stuart Paul Duncan


“The notation acts as an intermediary… the role of notation is purely presentational; its success is defined by how ‘clearly’ the composer transmits his/her ideas to the performer.” Stuart Paul Duncan


“A wide spectrum of complexities, complexities that manifest not solely in the notational domain, but also in the acts of performance and reception of these scores.” Stuart Paul Duncan


Is it possible that all this information is...

“...unnecessarily complicated, eliminating the performer’s role to interpret and leaving the listener saturated in incomprehensible information[?]” Stuart Paul Duncan


“No notation… can presume to record information encompassing all aspects of the sonic phenomenon for which it stands.” Stuart Paul Duncan


Is a score...

“...outlining the way from the conceptual to the experimental and back[?]” Stuart Paul Duncan


Is it okay if it leads to...

“...something which the composer almost certainly did not intend or predict[?]” Stuart Paul Duncan


“The point is, however, not whether the performance is accurate or even whether the score is playable as written… so is it all about nothing?” Stuart Paul Duncan


“For Ferneyhough, notation can never present an exact encoding of the aural experience; notation is the beginning of a process, not the end.” Stuart Paul Duncan


“The criteria for aesthetically adequate performances lie in the extent to which the performer is technically and spiritually able to recognize and embody the demands of fidelity (NOT exactitude!)” Stuart Paul Duncan


A score is...

“...a labyrinth with multiple entrances and exits.” Stuart Paul Duncan


“Each reading is independent from the next… banish the belief in a single way to approach a work.” Stuart Paul Duncan


“It is the player’s responsibility to transcend traditional limitations.” Stuart Paul Duncan


“Artistic freedom… must remain sovereign over the notated task.” Stuart Paul Duncan


“The functions of notation in the music are in dire need of a re-complexification.” Stuart Paul Duncan



The New Musical Notation: A Graphic Art? by John Evarts
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“[These scores produce] an infinite number [of works] and a new one each time the score is ‘realized.’” John Evarts


“A method of notation which precisely facilitates the reconstruction of the work, intensifies it, gives a full account of it and, in short, communicates a precise view of the composer’s intentions.” John Evarts


“An interpreter of a “musical graphic” score seeks only to produce “sound pictures” analogous to the graphic score before his eyes.” John Evarts



A CAP for graphic scores Graphic notation and Performance by Benny Sluchin and Mikhail Malt
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“The graphical notation has not only a score function, but also an inspirational and poetic purpose.” Benny Sluchin and Mikhail Malt


“While in the graphic space, we can navigate in the time line, jumping from future to past and vice versa, in the real world the time appears to be irreversible.” Benny Sluchin and Mikhail Malt



Prelude of Sound and Score by Paulo de Assis
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“The transformation of sounds into symbols… [defines] a completely new way of conceiving and perceiving music.” Paulo de Assis


“Understanding ‘score’ [as] ... any artefact containing a graphic representation of a musical work.” Paulo de Assis


“‘Notation’ [is the] totality of words, signs and symbols encountered on the road to a concrete performance of music.” Paulo de Assis


“To see something, to listen to something, is always to enter into another reality, into other systems of reference, thought and experience.” Paulo de Assis


“‘Unless sounds are remembered by man, they perish, for they cannot be written down.’ — Isidore of Seville, 1472 … we could be tempted to say that ‘unless sounds are written down, they perish, for they cannot be remembered.’ Paulo de Assis


“Sounds are kept alive only through the use of memory.” Paulo de Assis


“In addition to a continuing need to devise new notational practices… there is also a need to permanently revisit and reconsider our understanding of past notational systems.” Paulo de Assis


“Three elements seem to be inherent in any notational system: the ability to offer a sound-picture…, the need to offer all essential instructions…, and the… collision of these two elements… incorporating an implied ideology of its own process of creation.” Paulo de Assis


“No notation can presume to record information encompassing all aspects of the sonic phenomenon for which it stands.” Brian Ferneyhough



What I Say and What I Do? by Jeremy Cox (Chapter 1, Sound and Score)
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“Western art music… [has a] strong tradition of transmission via the notated score.” Jeremy Cox


Composers eventually began...

“...to write music beyond their own capabilities as performers.” Jeremy Cox


“A composer may legitimately deliver interpretations that are less bound by the conventions… than are those of other performers… [composers] may inflect, or even contradict, the notated score.” Jeremy Cox


“The act[s] of composition… seek to give us intimations of the musical thought and Gestalt that only the composer can know.” Jeremy Cox


“A performer who is prepared to spend time with the score and to interrogate it from perspectives other than that of the one-note-after-another linear reading will be able to elucidate many of these ‘higher order’ elements and use them to enrich his or her understanding of the Work.” Jeremy Cox


“[A score] always contains hidden elements that defy definition because verbal dialectic is powerless to define musical dialectic in its totality. The realization of these elements is thus a matter of experience and intuition…” Igor Stravinsky


A performer...

“...as interpreter… seeks to combine… ‘the virtues of fidelity and sympathy.’” Jeremy Cox



The Mysterious Whether Seen as Inspiration or as Alchemy by Paul Roberts (Chapter 2, Sound and Score)
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“A composer’s notation arises from the pressures of what cannot be notated, and hence it can only be fully understood in relation to these elements.” Paul Roberts


“Beyond the notation lies my and your collaboration, my and your knowledge, what the performer and the listener bring to bear on the notation from their own experience of those three diminished sevenths of the nervous system.” Paul Roberts



Exploring Musical Integrity and Experimentation by Kathleen Coessens (Interlude I, Sound and Score)
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A score is...

“...a visual representation of sound structures… a conventional code… it offers an immediate and complete overview of something that is otherwise not visually perceivable… it mediates… radically different senses.” Kathleen Coessens


“The score does not mimic nor resemble the music; it is not a photograph… [it is a] radical translation… requiring… contextual unraveling.” Kathleen Coessens


“The distance between abstract and complex music notation, on the one hand, and the immediate aural and embodied perception of music on the other, implies the need for an efficient learning process to enhance the complex process of translation that is involved.” Kathleen Coessens


“If ‘langue’ of a certain period can be rendered by way of written documents, its ‘paroles’—the ways we speak the language, the accents, speed, and pitch—are most of the time lost, because they are ephemeral in practice and dynamic across history.” Kathleen Coessens


The score’s...

“...technical elements offer access to a delayed or mediated auditory perception by way of an embodied process. The interface between score and sound is the artist’s body in the process of musical realisation.” Kathleen Coessens


“The score, fixed in the past, realised in the present, is open towards a future.” Kathleen Coessens


“Musical integrity refers… to the need for critical and reflective abilities in a musician… [it does not] imply an uncritical mimicking of notational procedures or historical performances.” Kathleen Coessens


“A score is an invitation.” Kathleen Coessens


Performers...

“Scores can remain the same, even as different readings of the score develop.” Kathleen Coessens


“The score is not an element in itself but is dependent upon the historical situatedness of its performers.” Kathleen Coessens



On Joseph Beuys
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A score is...

“First performed in Tokyo in 1969, the sauerkraut action started with a music stand on which a loose sauerkraut portion was arranged in place of the score. His ‘music’ thus positioned, Beuys would conduct music on stage according to the ‘sauerkraut principle.’ The principle is simple: instead of slavishly obeying aesthetic rules and repeating the recipes of musical scores that dictate what is played, the replacement of the score by sauerkraut allows the musician to improvise freely and be artistically creative.” Harald Lemke






Cartography
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Simplification
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“Where everything becomes simple is the most desirable place to be. But, like Wittgenstein and his ‘harmless contradiction’, you have to remember how you got there. The simplicity must contain the memory of how hard it was to achieve.” Cornelius Cardew


“Complexity—not to be confused with complication!—is a prerequisite of any great art wishing to satisfy not only the sense of feelings, but also the mind.” Harry Halbreich


“Ludwig Wittgenstein said that the most important aspects of things are hidden because of their simplicity and familiarity.” Nicola Perullo


“Not everything should be convenient.” Robin Wall Kimmerer, in “The Honorable Harvest” from Braiding Sweetgrass


“‘The mind,’ which was once ‘the place where you sounded like yourself,’ is rapidly becoming the place where ‘we [sound] like each other, through some erosion of wind or water on a self not nearly as firm as stone.’” Becca Rothfeld, on Patrica Lockwood’s work


“[Television] can't handle the jumbled stew of troubles that makes up any impoverished life; because to do that would be to narrow the focus to a single ordinary experience, and the whole point of 'broad' casting is just the opposite.” Bill McKibben, from “8:00 PM” in The Age of Missing Information


“The global corporations, said [Theodore] Leavitt, 'looks to the nations of the world not for how they are different but for how they are alike... It seeks constantly in every way to standardize everything into a common global mode.” Bill McKibben, from “Midmorning” in The Age of Missing Information


“These early modern sugar plantations not only were highly mechanical, with large, fuel-intensive boilers and heavy-duty rolling mills to extract cane juice from stalks, but also served as powerful drivers of ‘simplification’.” Jason W. Moore and Raj Patel, from “Cheap Work of” A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet


“Shortening messages meant saving money.” James Gleick, from Chapter 5 of The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood


“Redundancy—inefficient by definition—serves as the antidote to confusion... Most of the time, redundancy in language is just part of the background. For a telegraphist it is an expensive waste. For an African drummer it is essential.” James Gleick, from Chapter 1 of The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood


“Pattern, as he saw it, equals redundancy. In ordinary language, redundancy serves as an aid to understanding. In cryptanalysis, that same redundancy is the Achilles' heel... [Claude] Shannon estimated that English has redundancy of about 50 percent.” James Gleick, from Chapter 7 of The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood


“Amount of information represents the amount of uncertainty.” James Gleick, from Chapter 7 of The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood


Overview
Research
Practice
Index